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principled approaches to robust machine learning

You can unsubscribe at any time. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Robust Automated Machine Learning Matthias Feurer and Aaron Klein and Katharina Eggensperger and Jost Tobias Springenberg and Manuel Blum and Frank Hutter Abstract The success of machine learning in a broad range of applications has led to an ever-growing demand for machine learning systems that can be used o the shelf by non-experts. The term machine learning refers to a set of topics dealing with the creation and evaluation of algorithms that facilitate pattern recognition, classification, and prediction, based on models derived from existing data. Several recent approaches have proposed new principles to achieve generalizable predic-tors by learning robust representations from mul-tiple training set distributions. ∙ 81 ∙ share . My Ph.D thesis. List learning: Learning when there is an overwhelming fraction of corrupted data. Feeding robust estimators into our deep learners can protect them from irrelevant and potentially misleading information. Author(s) Li, Jerry Zheng. Principled Approaches to Robust Machine Learning and Beyond. Our work builds upon a rich literature of adversarial noise and robust optimization in machine learning [4, 20, 24, 27, 28, 31]. .icon-1-3 img{height:40px;width:40px;opacity:1;-moz-box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;-webkit-box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;padding:0px;}.icon-1-3 .aps-icon-tooltip:before{border-color:#000} Most learners want floating point numbers between 0 and 1 or -1 and +1 as inputs, so for ranked data it may be necessary to renormalize to a more learner-friendly scale. Robust statistics are also called “non-parametric”, precisely because the underlying data can have almost any distribution and they will still produce a number that can be associated with a p-value. He is a professional engineer (PEO and APEGBC) and holds a PhD in physics from Queen’s University at Kingston. Even in cases where we have theoretically well-behaved data, such as is seen in fields like nuclear spectroscopy, where the law of large numbers promises to give us perfectly gaussian peak shapes, there are background events, detector non-linearities, and just plain weirdness that interferes with things. 10/14/2019 ∙ by Jason Anastasopoulos, et al. Regardless of who created it, the test statistic (U) for a two-class problem is the sum of the ranks for one class minus a correction factor for the expected value in the case of identical distributions. Model-Based Robust Deep Learning. Robust algorithms throw away information, and in the real world they frequently throw away as much or more noise as signal. Õ½ÖêâÁ›ï¡ßX{\5Ji‚p^k¤àœtE@içñÓÃyѲ=ÏKÚ#CÈÝî÷'¬"]ÔxðÒÓ^¤nÄ}k.X¶^…UÏ-¯üà=úM¡O Â{ª˜Ê¢V‚×;Ç?ÏO–ÝB5%gõD,mªRëË¡7P¿qC‘|€Hƒ:?§ýÐÞG¦(ƒ¯âVÀÃáÕüÆ>gˆ°ç¦!Ï. But in reality, for data scientists and machine learning engineers, there are a lot of problems that are much more difficult to deal with than simple object recognition in images, or playing board games with finite rule sets. ... More precisely, our meta-learning approach works as follows. The problem with this approach is the “known distribution” of that number depends on the distribution of the data. Lecture 19 (12/5): Additional topics in private machine learning. Auto-sklearn: Efficient and Robust Automated Machine Learning Matthias Feurer, Aaron Klein, Katharina Eggensperger, Jost Tobias Springenberg, Manuel Blum, and Frank Hutter Abstract The success of machine learning in a broad range of applications has led to an ever-growing demand for machine learning systems that can be used off the 1 Introduction In this work, we consider a situation often faced by deci-sion makers: a policy needs to be created for the future that would be a best possible reaction to the worst possible un-certain situation; this is a question of robust … For example, using r as a measure of similarity in the registration of low contrast image can produce cases where “close to unity” means 0.998 and “far from unity” means 0.98, and no way to compute a p-value due to the extremely non-Gaussian distributions of pixel values involved. Keywords: machine learning, uncertainty sets, robust opti-mization. ETHICAL PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING PATIENT SAFETY IN HEALTHCARE ML Robust Channel Coding Strategies for Machine Learning Data Kayvon Mazooji, Frederic Sala, Guy Van den Broeck, and Lara Dolecek fkmazooji1, fredsalag@ucla.edu, guyvdb@cs.ucla.edu, dolecek@ee.ucla.edu UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 Abstract—Two important recent trends are the proliferation of learning algorithms along with the massive increase of data This study proposes a complete multi-objective optimization framework using a robust machine learning approach to inherent sustainability principles in the design of SDHS. The regression discontinuity design (RDD) has become the "gold standard" for causal inference with observational data. Principled Approaches to Robust Machine Learning September 25, 2019 Tuesdays & Thursdays, 10:00 AM |11:30 AM. Training becomes difficult for such coarse data because they effectively turn the smooth gradients we are trying to descend down into terraced hillsides where nothing much happens until the input steps over an embankment and plunges violently to the next level. The idea of any traditional (non-Bayesian) statistical test is the same: we compute a number (called a “statistic”) from the data, and use the known distribution of that number to answer the question, “What are the odds of this happening by chance?” That number is the p-value. These are some of the Python packages that can help: SciPy for statistics; Keras for machine learning; Pandas for ETL and other data analytics These studies de- principled approach to understand how the learning algorithm, hyperparameters, and data interact with each other to facilitate a data-driven approach for applying machine learning techniques. Machine learning to measure treatment heterogeneity (b(i,t)) Susan Athey gave an excellent keynote talk that rapidly overviewed how machine learning can be used in economics, and her AEA lectures have more. 1.1. (4) A set of techniques, including machine learning, that is designed to approximate a cognitive task. Principled estimation of regression discontinuity designs with covariates: a machine learning approach. Moreover, the framework investigates the uncertainty in the context of SDHS design, in which the Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is combined with the heuristics optimization approach. Robust Machine Learning. In this paper, we develop a general minimax approach for supervised learning problems with arbitrary loss functions. 05/20/2020 ∙ by Alexander Robey, et al. So while losing signal information can reduce the statistical power of a method, degrading gracefully in the presence of noise is an extremely nice feature to have, particularly when it comes time to deploy a method into production. For these majority of problems, it pays to have a variety of approaches to help you reduce the noise and anomalies, to focus on something more tractable. Principled Approaches to Robust Machine Learning and Beyond (Jerry Li's thesis) Probability Bounds (John Duchi; contains exposition on Ledoux-Talagrand) Approximating the Cut-Norm via Grothendieck's Inequality (Alon and Naor) Better Agnostic Clustering via Relaxed Tensor Norms (Kothari and Steinhardt) The asymptotic equiv-alence suggests a principled way to regularize statistical learning problems, namely, by solving the regularization problem (2). .icon-1-2 img{height:40px;width:40px;opacity:1;-moz-box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;-webkit-box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;padding:0px;}.icon-1-2 .aps-icon-tooltip:before{border-color:#000} 2. Learning to reweight examples for robust deep learning. For all their limitations, robust approaches are a valuable addition to the data scientist’s methods, and should be considered whenever noise and anomalies are causing trouble with more traditional tools. notes; Supplementary material. In particular, converting cardinal data value to ordinals (ranks) allows us to ask some very robust questions. 1. He is deeply committed to the ideas of Bayesian probability theory, and assigns a high Bayesian plausibility to the idea that putting the best software tools in the hands of the most creative and capable people will make the world a better place. Both lenses draw from broad, well accepted ethical commitments and apply these principles to individual cases. October 5, 2014. We propose a novel discrete-time dynamical system-based framework for achieving adversarial robustness in machine learning models. Statistics of this kind are sometimes called “parametric” statistics due to their dependency on the parameters of the underlying distributions. These are some of the Python packages that can help: SciPy for statistics; Keras for machine learning; Pandas for ETL and other data analytics Data poisoning attacks / defenses: Techniques for supervised learning with outliers. These are some of the Python packages that can help: All of these are included with ActivePython. He is deeply committed to the ideas of Bayesian probability theory, and assigns a high Bayesian plausibility to the idea that putting the best software tools in the hands of the most creative and capable people will make the world a better place. Immune-inspired approaches to explainable and robust deep learning models Use Artificial Immune Systems as a principled way to design robust and explainable deep learning models. Section 7 reports experimental results and Section 8 concludes this paper. In response to this fragility, adversarial training has emerged as a principled approach for enhancing the robustness of deep learning … We present a principled framework for robust classification, which combines ideas from robust optimization and machine learning, with an aim to build classifiers that model data uncertainty directly. c. Toward robustness against label noise in training deep discriminative neural networks. 3. While deep learning has resulted in major breakthroughs in many application domains, the frameworks commonly used in deep learning remain fragile to artificially-crafted and imperceptible changes in the data. Robust Machine Learning Algorithms and Systems for Detection and Mitigation of Adversarial Attacks and Anomalies: Proceedings of a Workshop. For a machine learning algorithm to be considered robust, either the testing error has to be consistent with the training error, or the performance is … of machine learning approaches for identifying high-poverty counties: robust features of DMSP/ OLS night-time light imagery, International Journal of … A principled approach to regularize statistical learning problems. .icon-1-4 img{height:40px;width:40px;opacity:1;-moz-box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;-webkit-box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;padding:0px;}.icon-1-4 .aps-icon-tooltip:before{border-color:#000} It can also be tricky to use robust inputs because they can be quite coarse in their distribution of values, in the worst case consisting of a relatively small number of integer values. Download ActivePython Community Edition today to try your hand at designing more robust algorithms. This is also called the Wilcoxon U test, although in keeping with Boyer’s Law (mathematical theorems are not usually named after the people who created them) it was actually first written down by Gustav Deuchler thirty years before Mann, Whitney, or Wilcoxon came on the scene. b. Mentornet: Learning datadriven curriculum for very deep neural networks on corrupted labels. Learning robust representations of data is criti-cal for many machine learning tasks where the test distribution is different from the train distri-bution. a classification approach by minimizing the worst-case hinge loss subject to fixed low-order marginals; [4] fits a model minimizing the maximal correlation under fixed pairwise marginals to design a robust classification scheme. Robust machine learning Robust machine learning typically refers to the robustness of machine learning algorithms. Pearson’s “r” (which appears as r-squared in linear regression problems) falls into the latter category, as it is so sensitive to the underlying distributions of data that it cannot in most practical cases be turned into a meaningful p-value, and is therefore almost useless even by the fairly relaxed standards of traditional statistical analysis. It would be interesting to see work done on learning systems that are optimized for this kind of input rather than the quasi-continuous values that our learners tend to be set up for today. Robust Learning: Information Theory and Algorithms Jacob Steinhardt's Ph.D thesis. First, we propose a doubly robust estimator of the prediction inaccuracy. In learning systems we can utilize the principle of robustness even in cases where we aren’t interested in a pure statistical analysis. Efficient and Robust Automated Machine Learning ... improve its efficiency and robustness, based on principles that apply to a wide range of machine learning frameworks (such as those used by the machine learning service providers mentioned above). Tom brings a passion for quantitative, data-driven processes to ActiveState. Introduction. d. Learning from noisy large-scale datasets with minimal supervision. Tom Radcliffe has over 20 years experience in software development, data science, machine learning, and management in both academia and industry. S-kernel. classifiers is a basic theoretical question in robust machine learning that so far has not been addressed. Principled approaches to robust machine learning and beyond. Our algorithm is originated from robust optimization, which aims to find the saddle point of a min-max optimization problem in the presence of uncertainties. Tom Radcliffe has over 20 years experience in software development, data science, machine learning, and management in both academia and industry. For all their limitations, robust approaches are a valuable addition to the data scientist’s methods, and should be considered whenever noise and anomalies are causing trouble with more traditional tools. Title:Model-Based Robust Deep Learning. ... robust covariance estimation. Student’s t-test, for example, depends in the distributions being compared having the same variance. Specifically, this dissertation examines the properties of the training data and For more information, consult our Privacy Policy. She noted two different approaches in using machine learning to identify heterogeneity in treatment effects. Description of the Project: There is an increasing demand for both robust and explainable deep learning systems in real world applications. Two facets of mechanization should be acknowledged when considering machine learning in broad terms. "), surprise API changes, (a function used to return proportions, suddenly it … doi: 10.17226/25534. This is illustrated by the training of Wasser-stein generative adversarial networks. In the world we actually inhabit, this matters a great deal because of noise, outliers, and anomalies. Take, for example, the Mann-Whitney U test. Section 6 describes how to implement the learning Robust BM25 method. Room: G04. .icon-1-1 img{height:40px;width:40px;opacity:1;-moz-box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;-webkit-box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;padding:0px;}.icon-1-1 .aps-icon-tooltip:before{border-color:#000} [24][25][26]) and the matrix MCP penalty is proposed in [27] for the robust principle component analysis. The value of U is (approximately) normally distributed independently of the underlying distributions of the data, and this is what gives robust or non-parametric statistics their power. Introduction In response to the vulnerability of deep neural networks to small perturbations around input data (Szegedy et al., 2013), adversarial defenses have been an imperative object of study in machine learning (Huang et al., 2017), computer Tom brings a passion for quantitative, data-driven processes to ActiveState. For all their limitations, robust approaches are a valuable addition to the data scientist's methods, and should be considered whenever noise and anomalies are causing trouble with more traditional tools. For example, the p penalty form is studied by many researchers (see e.g. ing the runner-up approach by 11.41% in terms of mean ` 2 perturbation distance. Machine learning is often held out as a magical solution to hard problems that will absolve us mere humans from ever having to actually learn anything. ActiveState®, ActivePerl®, ActiveTcl®, ActivePython®, Komodo®, ActiveGo™, ActiveRuby™, ActiveNode™, ActiveLua™, and The Open Source Languages Company™ are all trademarks of ActiveState. The estimator corrects the deviations of the imputed errors, inversely weighted with the propensi-ties, for observed ratings. He is a professional engineer (PEO and APEGBC) and holds a PhD in physics from Queen's University at Kingston. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robustness_(computer_science), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J-b1WNf6FoU, Python distribution for Windows, Linux and Mac, Jupyter Notebooks for interactive/exploratory analysis. Doubly Robust Joint Learning for Recommendation on Data Missing Not at Random We propose a principled approach to overcome these limi-tations. One approach is to design more robust algorithms where the testing error is consistent with the training error, or the performance is stable after adding noise to the dataset1. Origins of incorrect data include programmer errors, ("oops, we're double counting! While deep learning has resulted in major breakthroughs in many application domains, the frameworks commonly used in deep learning remain fragile to artificially-crafted and imperceptible changes in the data. Model-Based Robust Deep Learning. This dependency can be mild–as in the case of Student’s t-test or the F-test–or it can be so severe as to make the value essentially meaningless for statistical purposes. Jacob is also teaching a similar class at Berkeley this semester: link; Accommodations In an imaginary world quite different from this one, none of this would matter very much because data would be well-behaved. For the majority of problems, it pays to have a variety of approaches to help you reduce the noise and anomalies so you can focus on something more tractable. Privacy Policy • © 2020 ActiveState Software Inc. All rights reserved. Quality improvement is consistent with a learning healthcare system approach that aims to optimize the delivery of care to maximally benefit patients. ∙ 0 ∙ share. × Local average treatment effects (LATE) for RDDs are often estimated using local linear regressions … Related Work Real data often has incorrect values in it. The trick is to find a property of the data that does not depend on the details of the underlying distribution. ... As we apply machine learning to more and more important tasks, it becomes increasingly important that these algorithms are robust to systematic, or worse, malicious, noise. And check out my slides on this talk from PyData Seattle here: 1 From Robust Machine Learning: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robustness_(computer_science). Download Python For Machine Learning ActivePython is the trusted Python distribution for Windows, Linux and Mac, pre-bundled with top Python packages for machine learning. More information: Mo Deng et al, Learning to synthesize: robust phase retrieval at low photon counts, Light: Science & Applications (2020).DOI: 10.1038/s41377-020-0267-2 This is the underlying reason why the CVAE framework is a principled approach for learning real-world perturbation sets, which may not be true of other generative frameworks like GANs. More … Related Work. .icon-1-5 img{height:40px;width:40px;opacity:1;-moz-box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;-webkit-box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;box-shadow:0px 0px 0px 0 ;padding:0px;}.icon-1-5 .aps-icon-tooltip:before{border-color:#000}.

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